Event propagation

….. States of source and sinks cannot be considered proper causes since sources and sinks cannot influence the state of connected transport functions. Sources and sinks are by definition infinite in function of creating or removing energy or mass.


In order to specify how events propagate in MFM models we need to distinguish between the two connections points (ports) of a transport function as shown in the figure below. The two port names “from-port” and “to-port” refer to abstract locations and are derived from the direction of flow indicated by the arrow in the… read more »

Indirect influence

An indirect influence represents situations where the change of the state of a storage or a balance may have an effect on the state of their connected transport functions. Indirect influences represent ac-cordingly interactions between potential and actual-ized changes in mass or energy flows.

Influence relations

Flow functions are interconnected within flow structures by two types of influence relations called direct and indirect influences. The influences define a potential for interaction between flow functions. They do not define the actual dependencies between states of the functions which are defined by state dependency relations.

Direct influence

Direct influences represent situations where a change in the state of a transport function has an ef-fect on the state of its neighboring storage or balance functions.


An agent is an encapsulated computer system that is situated in some environment and can act flexibly and autonomously in that environment to meet its design objectives [M.Wooldridge. An introduction to multiagent systems. Wiley, 2 edition, 2009.].


Causality is the relation between an event (cause) and a second event (effect), so it is relative to events rather than statistical variables. Causality itself may be deterministic or probabilistic. For example, one could easily hypothesize that one factor (i.e. bad air quality) causes one effect (i.e. increase in risk of getting lung cancer).